Ten strongest materials known to man
Introduction: graphene is a kind of honeycomb two-dimensional flat film formed by carbon atoms in SP2 hybrid way. It is a single-layer sheet structure stripped from graphite, and also the thinnest known new material. The tensile strength and modulus of elasticity are 125gpa and 1.1tpa respectively, and their strength is 100 times that of ordinary steel. The packaging bag made of graphene can bear about 2 tons of weight, which is the first largest material known at present.
Development trend: after the Nobel Prize in physics was awarded in 2010, the global patent application of graphene began to increase dramatically, and it is expected to be applied in many fields such as electronics, energy storage, catalysts, sensors, photoelectric transparent films, super composite materials and biomedicine in the future.
Major research companies: graphene technologies, graphene industries, XG Sciences, Dafu technology, Dongxu optoelectronics, Bao'an, St olefin carbon, baotailong, Fangda carbon, etc.
Introduction: carbon nanotube is a kind of one-dimensional quantum material with hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms forming several to dozens of layers of coaxial circular tubes. It can be regarded as the curling of graphene sheets. According to the number of graphene sheets, it can be divided into: single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) and multi wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Carbon nanotubes have good mechanical properties. The tensile strength of carbon nanotubes is 50-200gpa, which is 100 times of that of steel. However, the density of carbon nanotubes is only 1 / 6 of that of steel, which is at least one order of magnitude higher than that of conventional graphite fiber. Its elastic modulus can reach 1tpa, which is equivalent to that of diamond, which is about 5 times of that of steel.
Development trend: since its discovery in the 1990s, carbon nanotube related industries have developed vigorously, and are widely used in manufacturing composite materials and films, transparent conductors, thermal interfaces, bullet proof jackets, wind turbine blades, electrode and catalyst carriers for functional devices, etc.
Main research companies: Bayer materials science AG, Toray Industries Inc., unidym. Inc., Shenzhen nanoport Co., Ltd., Shenzhen enwan Technology Co., Ltd., Shandong Dazhan carbon nanotube Co., Ltd., Shenzhen beitrei new energy materials Co., Ltd., etc.
Brief introduction: metallic glass, also known as amorphous metal, is usually alloy, with amorphous structure and glassy structure. This dual structure determines that it has many properties that crystal metal and glass can not match, such as good conductivity, high strength, high elasticity, more wear resistance and corrosion resistance. The strength of metallic glass is higher than that of steel, and the hardness is higher than that of high hardness tool steel.
Development trend: super strong, elastic and magnetic properties, and relatively large metal glass, which can keep solid without crystallization at high temperature, are mainly used in aerospace and military weapons.
Main research companies and institutions: glassmetal Technology Inc., Institute of metal materials, Northeastern University of Japan, California Institute of technology, etc.
Introduction: UHMWPE fiber is a kind of fiber spun from polyethylene with a relative molecular weight of 1 million to 5 million. It is the first fiber with the highest strength and lightest proportion in the world. Its strength is 15 times higher than that of steel wire, but it is very light, and it can be 40% lighter than that of materials such as aramid fiber at most.
Development trend: from ropes, mooring ropes and rope nets to life protection applications, high-performance textiles, composite materials and laminated materials, the application range is extremely wide. In the next 5 and 10 years, the annual demand of UHMWPE in the world will be 60000 tons and 100000 tons respectively.
Main research companies: DSM in the Netherlands, Honeywell in the United States, Mitsui chemical in Japan, Sri Polymer Technology Co., Ltd. in Shanghai, Zhongtai special equipment Co., Ltd. in Hunan, Dacheng New Material Co., Ltd. in Ningbo, etc.
Boron nitride nanotubes
Introduction: like carbon, boron nitride can form a single atomic layer sheet, which can be curled to form nanotubes. Boron nitride nanotubes have the same strength as carbon nanotubes, but their real advantage is that when they are combined with polymer materials, they can stick to polymer materials firmly. The strength of BN nanotubes is higher than that of CNTs, about 30% higher than that of PMMA interface, and about 20% higher than that of epoxy resin.
Development trend: boron nitride nanotubes have optical properties, excellent mechanical and thermal conductivity properties, can withstand high temperature, and can absorb neutron radiation, and become effective additives for mechanical or thermal strengthening of polymers, ceramics and metal composites. Additional applications include BNN nanotubes as shields, electrical insulators, and sensors.
Main research companies: BNNT LLC of the United States, Wuhan Institute of chemical new material industry technology Co., Ltd.
Brief introduction: Lonsdale stone was discovered by American geologist Lonsdale in a crater and defined as a hexagonal meteorite diamond. Like diamond, it is composed of carbon atoms, but their carbon atoms are arranged in different shapes. Through simulation experiments, it is found that the compressive capacity of Lonsdale stone is 58% higher than that of diamond.
Brief introduction: diamond is the hardest substance found in the earth, which is the allotrope of carbon element. The hardness of diamond is the first and the tenth grade of Mohs hardness, the microhardness is 10000kg / mm2, 1000 times higher than quartz and 150 times higher than corundum.
Development trend: diamond is widely used in industry, mainly in diamond cutter, diamond for wire drawing die and diamond bit. In recent ten years, China's diamond tool manufacturers have developed rapidly, with an annual sales growth rate of 15%.
Main research companies: Fujiwara, tyrolit, Saint Gobain, Sandvik, Japan to you, Huanghe cyclone, Henan diamond, sifangda, etc.
Introduction: Aerogel aerogel is a solid material form with the smallest density in the world. The density is 3kg / m3. Aerogels appear to be "fragile", but they are very durable. It can withstand pressure thousands of times its mass and will not melt until the temperature reaches 1200 ℃.
Development trend: aerogels show many unique properties in the fields of heat, optics, electricity, mechanics and acoustics. They can be used as thermal insulation materials, ICF and X laser targets, catalysts, adsorbents, various electronic devices and so on.
Main research companies and institutions: BASF company of Germany, University of weitzburg of Germany, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory of the United States, Montpellier materials research center of France, Nano Technology Co., Ltd., light ordering Ellison High Tech Co., Ltd., Hongda Technology (Beijing) Co., Ltd.
Introduction: silicon carbide is a natural mineral in nature, or it is made of quartz sand, petroleum coke (or coal coke), sawdust and other raw materials through high temperature smelting in resistance furnace. The hardness of silicon carbide is very large. Its Mohs hardness is 9.5, which is next to the hardest diamond in the world. It has excellent thermal conductivity and is a semiconductor. It can resist oxidation at high temperature.
Development trend: as a typical representative of the third generation semiconductor materials, silicon carbide is favored by the downstream semiconductor enterprises. Power electronic devices made of silicon carbide single crystal substrate and epitaxial materials can work in high voltage and high frequency environment, with outstanding performance advantages and broad industrial prospect.
Main research companies and institutions: Silicon Carbide Products Inc., Cree company, Hebei Tongguang crystal Co., Ltd., Institute of semiconductor research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen Xinguang Runze Technology Co., Ltd., etc
Darwin's bark spider
Introduce: according to report, scientist discovers spider new species Darwin barking spider in Madagascar, can weave the world's first big, also is the most solid spider web, the spider weaves the spider web width to reach 25 meters, is the strongest biomaterial studied so far, is the same size Kevlar fiber strength 10 times.
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